The teaching profession is central to a number of major issues confronting educational systems. The functioning of the profession thus suffers from low attractiveness, fragmentation, and teacher shortages. At the same time, the evolution of the institutional arrangements regulating the profession indicates significant changes in national education and employment systems in an increasingly globalised context. This project constitutes the first systematic comparative project in Europe aimed at understanding the role of the institutional dimensions affecting teachers’ careers and the teaching profession as a whole. The entry point for the project is that teacher policy since the 1970s across Europe and globally has been affected by a set of emphatic shifts in institutional logics: a shift from governing to governance, from education to learning, and from relatively stable and long-term employment relations to a flexibilisation paradigm.