Project Description

Table 1: Public government documents analysed

Name Relevance Author Year Type Political party in power
Teaching quality White paper – Proposed CATE and professional certification of teachers DES 1983 Targeted discussive document Tory
Circular 3/83 The in-service teacher training grants scheme First in a year “series” of CPD policy, focused on retraining teachers to become English or Maths teachers DES 1983 Targeted instructive document Tory
Circular 3/84 Initial teacher training: approval of courses Established CATE and professional certification of teachers DES 1984 Targeted instructive document Tory
Circular 4/84 The in service teacher training grants scheme Second in the CPD series – includes retraining to science DES 1984 Targeted instructive document Tory
Circular 3/85 The in service teacher training grants scheme Third in the CPD series  DES 1985 Targeted instructive document Tory
Circular 1/86 The in service teacher training grants scheme Fourth in the CPD series DES 1986 Targeted instructive document Tory
Circular 6/86 Local education authority training grant scheme Fifth in the CPD series – changed name to local education authority training grant scheme – shift towards more general CPD DES 1986 Targeted instructive document Tory
>Circular 9/87 Local education authority training grant scheme Sixth in the CPD series DES 1987 Targeted instructive document Tory
Circular 5/88 Local education authority training grant scheme Seventh in the CPD series DES 1988 Targeted instructive document Tory
Circular 5/88 Local education authority training grant scheme Standardisation of ITT routes leading to QTS DES 1989 Targeted instructive document Tory
Circular 20/89 Local education authority training grant scheme Eight in the CPD series DES 1989 Targeted instructive document Tory
Circular 24/89 Initial teacher training : approval of courses ITT course accreditation criteria DES 1989 Targeted instructive document Tory
Education and training for the 21st century Education plan  DES 1991 Broad document Tory
Administrative Memorandum 2/92 Induction of newly qualified teachers Revokes formal induction, instructions for NQTs DfE 1992 Targeted instructive document Tory
Circular 9/92 Initial teacher training (secondary phase)  introduced new criteria and procedures for ITT (secondary only DfE 1992 Targeted instructive document Tory
Circular 10/92 Grants for education support and training Ninth in the CPD series – new name “grants for education support and training” DfE 1992 Targeted instructive document Tory
Circular 10/93 Grants for education support and training Tenth in the CPD series DfE 1993 Targeted instructive document Tory
Circular 14/93 The initial training of primary school teachers: new criteria for courses introduced new criteria and procedures for ITT (primary only) DfE 1993 Targeted instructive document Tory
Circular 18/94 Grants for education support and training Eleventh in the CPD series DfE 1994 Targeted instructive document Tory
Circular 8/95 Grants for education support and training Twelfth in the CPD series DfE 1995 Targeted instructive document Tory
Circular 7/96 Use of supply teachers Supply teachers regulation – QTS DfEE 1996 Targeted instructive document Tory
Circular 13/96 Grants for education support and training Thirteenth in the CPD series DfEE 1996 Targeted instructive document Tory
Excellence in schools First labour white paper on education – teacher education said to be central for the whole document by its author DfEE 1997 Broad document Labour
Circular 10/97 Teaching : high status, high standards Requirements for ITT courses DfEE 1997 Targeted instructive document Labour
Circular 4/98 Teaching : high status, high standards Requirements for ITT courses DfEE 1998 Targeted instructive document Labour
The Education (Induction Arrangements for School Teachers) (England) Regulations (re) introduction of a formal induction year for newly qualified teachers DfEE 1999 Targeted instructive document Labour
Qualifying to teach: Professional Standards for Qualified Teacher Status and Requirements for Initial Teacher Training New standards – introduced « teach first »  – shift from national curriculum and attempts to control “methods” to only focusing on “outcomes” DfEE 2002 Targeted instructive document Labour
Every child matters new focus upon family and children – inter professional working DfEE 2003 Broad document Labour
The Professional Standards for Qualified Teachers Status and Requirements for Initial Teacher Training a revised version of the Teacher Standards TDA 2008 Targeted instructive document Labour
The importance of teaching White paper – presents the school-led system DfE 2010 Broad document Tory-LibDem Coalition
Training our next generation of outstanding teachers strategy and consultation report Strategy on ITT – SCITTs becoming more central – emphasis upon world leading system and comparison to other countries DfE 2011 Targeted discussive document Tory-LibDem Coalition
Teacher’s standards Reduced the teachers standards from 33 to 8 DfE 2011 Targeted instructive document Tory-LibDem Coalition
A guide to School Direct A guide to school direct schemes DfE 2013 Targeted instructive document Tory-LibDem Coalition
Gov response to the Carter review Governments response to the Carter review recommendations DfE 2015 Targeted instructive document Tory-LibDem Coalition
Education Excellence Everywhere White paper, led to a re-evaluation of the QTS and induction through consultation DfE 2016 Broad document Tory
Initial teacher training criteria and supporting advice Information for accredited initial teacher training providers Instructions for ITT providers – how ITT is to be done DfE 2017 Targeted instructive document Tory
Strengthening  

Qualified Teacher Status and improving career progression for teachers Government consultation

Proposed changes to the QTS and the introduction of two certificates, one after ITT and one after completion of induction DfE 2018 Targeted discussive document Tory with DUP support
Strengthening  

Qualified Teacher Status and improving career progression for teachers Government consultation response

Kept the QTS as is, extended induction from 1 to 2 years in length  DfE 2018 Targeted discussive document Tory with DUP support
Teacher recruitment and retention strategy New strategy for teacher recruitment and retention, CPD and ITT central elements of the strategy DfE 2019 Targeted discussive document Tory with DUP support
Early Career framework New structure for induction, attempts to link ITT, induction, and early CPD DfE 2019 Targeted discussive document Tory with DUP support
Core content framework Follows up on the early career framework, more targeted at initial teacher education. Normative pressure regarding methods in ITT and teaching.  DfE 2019 Column 5 Value 41 Tory with DUP support

Table 2: Reports and reviews

Name Purpose and relevance Main Author Year published
The Robbins report To review the pattern of full-time higher education in Great Britain and in the light of national needs and resources Professor Lord Robbins, London School of Economics professor  1961
The James Report Who should do ITT, role of local authorities and universities in ITT The Lord James of Rusholme, Vice-Chancellor of the University of York 1972
The Carter Review ITT fact finding, inform new ITT policy Sir Andrew Carter, school leader 2015

Table 3: Speeches

Name Purpose Orator Year Note (relevance)
Callaghan’s Ruskin Speech To review the pattern of full-time higher education in Great Britain and in the light of national needs and resources James Callaghan, Prime Minister for Labour 1976 First time a sitting Prime Minister spoke on Education (see e.g. Furlong 2001)
Blair’s Ruskin speech Presented his vision for Britain should he win the upcoming election: Education, education, education – introduction of political knowledge economy Tony Blair, leader of the opposition, Labour 1996 A hallmark speech before the upcoming 1997 election, presented the “knowledge economy” and a firm focus on education. The PM was to be held personally responsible for education.

Table 4: BERA presidential addresses

All inaugural presidential addresses in BERA between 1974 and 2018

Year Author Name Notes
1974 John Nisbet Educational research: The state of the art Speech at the inaugural meeting of BERA on the 5th of April 1974 – a focus on growth, trends, and structure in educational research
1975 Edgar Stones The colour of conceptual learning Focused on psychology and education, children’s learning and the school. Differences in ability and differing pedagogical approaches in this regard.
1976 Jack Wrigley Pitfalls in educational research Methodology of educational research, nature of educational research, risks in educational research.
1977 Brian Simon Educational research: which way? Classifying educational research, open-ended focus. What is education, what should educational research aim at. Perceived dominance of psychometrics. Educational research and policy also a central theme. 
1978 Jim Eggleston The characteristics of educational research: mapping the domain Methodology of educational research. Follows the debate from last year’s address. 
1979 Lawrence Stenhouse The study of samples and the study of cases Purpose of educational research as applied, but one that must work for both researchers and practitioners. Bridging this “divide” important
1980 Bruce Choppin Is education getting better? Is education getting better? Little evidence either way. Favouring examination and oversight under a single national body, thinks BERA should play a role here. 
1981 E. C. Wragg From research into action Influence and role of educational research in education. 
1982 Peter Chambers Democratisation and pragmatism in educational research Linking research and experience is important. Repeated attacks on teacher education and educational research.
1983 Sara Delamont A woman’s place in education: myths, monsters and misapprehensions Education and gender. First female president
1984 David Hamilton Bread and circuses: some challenges to educational research in the 1980s Role of BERA following new landscapes after SSRC closure. Education of teachers and other degrees in education. Looks to the future
1985 Brian Wilcox Research communities, the white paper chase and a new research ecumenism A focus on the education research community and government policy on education
1986 Bryan Dockrell The assessment of children’s affective characteristics  The moral nature of education and child impressions in school. 
1987 Patricia Broadfoot Educational research: two cultures and three estates Brings up hostile environment for educationalists under the Tories since their election in 79. 
1988 Jack Whitehead How do we improve research-based professionalism in education? A question which includes action research, educational theory and the politics of educational knowledge BERA as a forum for testing new ideas. BERA also a forum for protecting academic freedoms and conduct educational inquiries. 
1989 John Elliott Educational research in crisis: performance indicators and the decline in excellence.  Critique of government, lack of funds in educational research. Impact of policy on “excellence in research”. 
1990 Sally Brown Effective contributions from research to educational conversations: style and strategy Views from the “other side” draws on her own experiences as a former Scottish civil-servant and quango work, and a return to academia. 
1991 Michael Bassey Creating education through research Educational research and how to “construct” education for the future
1992 Caroline Gipps The profession of educational research Educational research and policymaking  – both in a crisis. Need to assert academic autonomy. 
1993 Wynne Harlen Developing public understanding of education – a role for educational researchers Follows from Gipps. Educationalists must understand the policy process. Educationalist – policymaker relations
1994 Jean Rudduck Enlarging the democratic promise of education… Historical look, work of national commission on Education (1993) – politics and education
1995 Roger Murphy Like a bridge over troubled water: realising the potential of educational research Role and purpose of BERA – its future, and educational research
1996 Donald McIntyre The profession of educational research Identity of researchers and BERA – relatable to purpose
1997 Margaret Brown Educational researchers in universities: the condition of the workforce Implications in the Dearing report, experience and qualifications of staff – from junior researcher to professor. Education compared to other disciplines in the University. 
1998 Pamela Lomax Working together for educative community through research Disagreements in education, folk devils, the media and “problems” in education. Primarily: The problems with “unconstrained” disagreement in educational research
1999 Peter Mortimer Does educational research matter?  Educational research, purpose and value. Set in the context of national and international economic developments. Impact of research on policy
2001 Anne Edwards Responsible Research: ways of being a researcher Educational research an engaged social science. Importance of “close to the field” research. How Educational Research can inform policy. 
2003 John Furlong BERA at 30. Have we come of age? Increasing demand for research based evidence. Accusations of poor quality and lack of impact. Plurality of approaches to educational research. 
2005 Geoff Whitty Education(al) research and education policy making: is conflict inevitable?  The role of educational research in policymaking. Policymaker and researcher relations.
2007 Pamela Munn Building research capacity collaboratively: can we take ownership of our future? Education and public policy. Knowledge creation. Quality and usefulness of educational research.
2010 John Gardner Educational research: what (a) to do about impact! Utility and value of social sciences research (education).
2013 Ian Menter Educational research – What’s to be done? Contributions educational research may make to policy development in education.
2015 Gemma Moss Knowledge, education and research: Making common cause across communities of practice Knowledge, education, and research – how these concepts can mean different things for policymakers and practitioners. 
2017 Gary McCulloch Educational research: Which way now? Early years of BERA and its foundation. Unresolved issues, way forward.

Table 5: List of interviewees

A 1: Senior academic, Russel Group University
A2: Academic, Russel Group University
A3: ITT interest group organization representative, former TTA, external government advisor
A4: ITT interest group organization representative, former head of teacher education in a SCITT, external government advisor
A5: Local councilman and analyst
A6: Senior academic, post-92 university, external government advisor
A7 Senior Civil servant, DfE
A8: State employee working on education
A9: Interest organization employee
A10: researcher in education
A11: head of a MAT and SCITT, works with the teaching schools alliance
A12: Senior civil servant, DfE – former TDA
A13: Senior civil servant, DfE – former TDA
A14: Head of a MAT and SCITT, external government adviser
A15: researcher in education
A16: Researcher, government adviser
A17: Senior academic, Russel Group University, involved in British teacher education policy
A18: Responsible for ITT and CPD at a major MAT, former Teach First employee
A19: Civil servant, DfE
A20: Union policy adviser

Table 6: Coding approach summaries ITT documents – development of institutional “Pillars” over time

Data source Links Carriers summarised Compliance summarised
Teaching quality Is referred to in Circular 3/84  Regulative: presented QTS and what became CATE – HMI to inspect schools to ensure QTS requirements are followed – however, document is discussive, link to Circular 3/84  control levers

Normative: Importance of teacher’s recognised. 

Cultural-cognitive: Importance of accountability in education. Role of government to ensure quality.

Regulative: N/A here – see circular 3/84

Normative: Government lacks legitimacy, teachers have it. it is important to have high demands of teachers (moral arguments)

Cultural-cognitive: shared need for public services (such as education) to be accountable – some efforts to justify it.

Circular 3/84 Refers to “Teaching quality 

(DES 1983)”

Regulative: Creation of two control levers, required accreditation of ITT courses through CATE in order to grant QTS.  Certification, QTS required in order to teach. Clear accountability from provider to CATE to DES. Secretary of State for Education is the one who awards the QTS. Legally sanctioned by law.

Normative: academia moral authority on academic degrees, CATE as staffed by teachers moral authority on professional degrees. Academics need relevant classroom experience to even train teachers (ROSE)

Cultural-cognitive: need for accountability, need to ensure quality, the importance of schools in teacher education. Cost concerns (This dimension is weak in this document, but strong through the direct link to “teaching quality”)

Regulative: Enforcement through HMI inspections and requirement of accreditation, clear consequences. Application procedures and “interviews” to ensure compliance

Normative: Teacher’s know the classroom better than academics – practical argument. “High performing” teachers the recognised voice of the profession. 

Cultural-cognitive: Similar to developments elsewhere in public policy – perceived need for central oversight and cost management. Also important to ensure quality in Education – link to teaching quality important here. Central efforts to justify why the QTS is needed (fragmented profession, quality, costs etc.)

Circular 18/89 Supplements 3/84 and later 24/89 Regulative: DfE control over standards, emphasis on certification, accreditation, and accountability line/hierarchy. Higher education sole providers of QTS. “probationary” teachers – induction, a new form of control

Normative: Universities seen as a legitimate actor, cannot be ignored. Continued emphasis on teachers knowledge and expertise (professional competences) – left undefined by government, but central through the probationary period

Cultural-cognitive: push of academic – practitioner split, emphasis on the classroom and the role of schools regarding professional competences. Need for accountability, need to ensure quality, the importance of schools in teacher education

Regulative: loss of accreditation remains a real possibility, increased emphasis on inspections.

Normative: still strong position for teachers and academics, cannot be ignored

Cultural-cognitive: clear and comprehensive frame rooted in issues of quality assurance, to be handled through standards, accreditation, and the role of schools in training teachers. Emphasis on teacher’s as knowing “what works”

Circular 24/89 Replaces Circular 3/84 Regulative: Reconstitutes CATE – same control levers (accreditation, certification (QTS), inspection), Sec of State in charge (appoints)

Normative: School teacher’s are the voice of education. Sec of State “expects” in relation to how the DES interprets education. The purpose of education a state-prerogative. 

Cultural-cognitive: push of academic – practitioner split, emphasis on the classroom and the role of schools regarding professional competences. Need for accountability, need to ensure quality, the importance of schools in teacher education. Some increased emphasis on “evidence” 

Regulative: Role of inspections restated – fear of consequences. Sec of State as final authority. 

Normative: Sec of State claims some moral authority and expertise – contestation

Still recognised role for teachers through CATE. And role of schools (partnerships) in ITT

Cultural-cognitive: continuation of existing lines, increasing understanding. Not yet fully taken for granted. References to Government and HMI “evidence”. Emphasis on teacher’s as knowing “what works”

AM (administrative memorandum)  2/92 Replaces part of circular 18/89 Regulative: end of “evaluation” at the end of induction

Normative: induction maintained, role of teacher’s and schools in teacher education reinforced

Cultural-cognitive: induction as an “aid” rather than evaluation device, still within an academic-practitioner split due to the emphasis on a necessity to continue training after the end of the academic course

Regulative: reduced “toolset”

Normative: continued evolution of teacher’s as a self-referring profession (importance of practical knowledge)

Cultural-cognitive: does not break with any developments observed in other documents, but adds little as well. 

Circular 9/92 Replaces circular 24/89 for secondary teachers NB: secondary teachers only

Regulative: restatement of control levers, accreditation, role of CATE, and HMI. But accreditation now granted to a whole institution (e.g. university) rather than on a “by course” basis.

Normative: increased focus on schools’ role in ITT, at the expense of academia

Cultural-cognitive: continuation of previous trends

Regulative: clear standards, inspections, Sec of State in Charge. But applies to whole institutions, different form of evaluation, but base compliance remains the same.

Normative: Role of state more prominent, teacher’s still the core “voice”. Academia still has a role

Cultural-cognitive:  further institutionalization of accountability, academic-practitioner divide, role of inspections. Emphasis on teacher’s as knowing “what works”

Circular 14/93 Replaces circular 24/89 for primary teachers.

Of importance across 9/92 and 14/93: split requirements, but same QTS

NB: primary teachers only

Regulative: restatement of control levers, accreditation, role of CATE, and HMI. But accreditation now granted to a whole institution (e.g. university) rather than on a “by course” basis.

Normative: increased focus on schools’ role in ITT, at the expense of academia

Cultural-cognitive: Importance of accountability to ensure quality pushed, academic-practitioner divide present

Regulative: clear standards, inspections, Sec of State in Charge

Normative: Role of state more prominent, teacher’s still the core “voice”. Academia still has a role

Cultural-cognitive:  further institutionalization of accountability, academic-practitioner divide, role of inspections.

Circular 7/96 None NB: Supply teachers only

Regulative: supply teachers should have QTS – inspectors will check

Normative: need for quality, and government as quality assurer through QTS institutionalized

Cultural-cognitive: push of accountability through inspections (NPM)

Regulative: fear of inspections

Normative: QTS pushed as “stamp of quality” – moral implications, teachers should have the QTS no matter what.

Cultural-cognitive: accountability through inspections and prescribed standards. (limited attempts to justify)

Excellence in schools Referred to in circular 10/97 Regulative: none on teachers, continuation

Normative: importance of teacher education – the white paper emphasised teacher training as the core of all their initiatives in education

Cultural-cognitive: knowledge economy, need for standards and accountability of teachers and their training

Regulative: N/A

Normative: teacher education, and by implication its quality, a key part of education (normative/moral argument) – it is right to have high demands of teacher training

Cultural-cognitive: presentation of “knowledge economy” – need of accountability and why it is important restated – clear frame

Circular 10/97 Replaces circulars 9/92 and 14/93 – links to “excellence in schools” for legitimacy Regulative: increased emphasis on standards, control levers remain accreditation, certification, inspection.

Normative: professional aspects of teaching considered central, this is handled through schools. Emphasis on schools as “custodians” of the professional aspects of teaching. Professional aspects central to ITT (PGCE).Partnerships between universities and schools important

Cultural-cognitive: accountability central, importance of education and the teacher for the country’s economy (knowledge economy), importance of schools in ITT. 

Regulative: fear of inspections, clear hierarchy, clear standards

Normative: Mainly a legitimiser of approaches, it is important to have high demands of teachers (moral arguments). Academic side not mentioned – academia “not important”?

Cultural-cognitive: Accountability and standards clearly defined, also attempted legitimised through emphasis on schools and teachers expertise. 

Circular 4/98 Restates circular 10/97 and expands on it

Last “circular”

Should be seen as an extension of 10/97 – 140 pages long of standards, standards, standards N/A – see above
The Education (Induction Arrangements for School Teachers) (England) Regulations Regulative: (re)introduces induction as mandatory, NQTs are required to pass their induction year – appeal body = Secretary of State for Education

Normative: increased emphasis on school-based teachers as the professional educators of teacher’s

Cultural-cognitive: academic-practitioner split, ITT as one part in academia (initial) and one part in schools (induction. 

Regulative: fear of failure, clear hierarchy with sec of state as final instance of appeal. 

Normative: importance of practical experience

Cultural-cognitive: teacher education seen as comprised of both an academic and professional component, clear understanding as to why this is so – emphasis on teacher’s as knowing “what works”

Qualifying to teach: Professional Standards for Qualified Teacher Status and Requirements for Initial Teacher Training Replaces circulars 4/98 and 10/97 Regulative: end of national curriculum, “return” to standards – in essence the control levers remain accreditation, certification, inspection – clear hierarchy still with Sec of State in charge even though it is a TDA publication (Sec of State still signed it)

Normative: recognition of individual needs and that ITT providers know what they are on about.

Cultural-cognitive: references the current system as “what works” due to perceived increases in standards and attainment. 

Regulative: inspections and standards

Normative: ITT providers are legitimate as “experts” on ITT – a right to define methods is theirs. But outcomes is for the state to determine, as custodians of the nation. 

Cultural-cognitive: standards work – All should aspire to them. 

Professional standards for Qualified Teacher Status Reformulates and directly relates to Qualifying to teach.  Regulative: sets out the standards trainee teachers must meet to be awarded the QTS – accreditation, certification. Sec of State in charge. Link to induction – ITT providers required to inform NQTs about induction. Increased reporting demands, to demonstrate providers meet requirements. clear hierarchy still with Sec of State in charge even though it is a TDA publication (Sec of State still signed it)

Normative: Emphasis on the Initial-induction link, as well as the place of schools in ITT. Added some new “certificates” in a ladder, but the QTS is still at the heart of the profession

Cultural-cognitive: changes justified in part due to “internal” evaluations and reviews – all behind a veil. Emphasis on “evidence” in addition to inspection results. Value for money traits more prominent than before

Regulative: Emphasis on inspections and criteria that must be met. Fear primary coercive compliance mechanism. 

Normative: authority still given largely to school based practitioners, particularly through emphasis on induction. QTS is argued to be at the heart of the profession, so any “good” teacher should meet the teacher standards, always. 

Cultural-cognitive: an emphasis on “evidence” of what works. 

The Importance of Teaching Regulative: limited, some focus on OFSTED in relation to education in general

Normative: Incredible emphasis on education being left to the professionals, this includes ITT – a stated aim is to increase school-led provision

Cultural-cognitive: large emphasis on evidence of “what works” – mostly centred on profession led ITT, CPD, reduction of direct government intervention in favour of a “distant” approach ensuring quality. Framed under “learning on the job”, so continued academic-practitioner divide, but with more direct langauge

Regulative: N/A

Normative: Teaching is a craft, teacher’s and high performing school leaders know best. First true articulation on “high performing schools” (circular 3/84 focused on high performing teachers) as a central “voice” in ITT.

Cultural-cognitive: emphasis on “evidence” and references to what works, particularly what works elsewhere (Finnish model) – first attempt to use “academic” style references to legitimise approach

Training our next generation of outstanding teachers Relates to “The importance of teaching” Regulative: Accreditation (QTS), standards to be met, inspections

Normative: high focus on “elite” and high performing teachers, schools, and school leaders as the “experts” on education and by extension ITT and CPD

Cultural-cognitive: high focus on teachers, limited references to academia. Pushes the importance of quality (accountability to ensure this), but a first recognition of recruitment (quantity) issues. Main focus on PGCE, limited focus on B.Ed

Regulative: focus on inspection and performance compared to standards. Also recruitment becoming a factor

Normative: high performing, and “elite” are key words for the right to “speak” on education and ITT/CPD – all as measured by government criteria. 

Cultural-cognitive: focus on schools and school led ITT as “what works” – accountability seems taken for granted, almost an afterthought that is and will be present. 

Educational Excellence Everywhere References the Carter Review and the Gov. Response to the review.  Regulative: limited, some focus on OFSTED in relation to education in general – questions replacing the QTS with a different form of certification – but core function would still have remained. Focus on outcomes, not methods.

Normative: ITT is improving, doing well, but can do better – legitimises current system. 

Cultural-cognitive: Continuation of “the importance of teaching” – focus on schools, the use of evidence, emphasis on ensuring quality. Emphasis on high performance and elite performers.  Extreme focus on “outcomes”

Regulative: Government in charge, failure to comply leads to loss of accreditation and right to train teachers. 

Normative: Current system is working and is supported by the high performing school, developments supported by Andrew Carter, the highest performing school leader.

Cultural-cognitive: the government’s policies is largely “what works” – Outcomes is what matters in education. 

ITT criteria and supporting advice Regulative: instructions for OFSTED and ITT providers – OFSTED are to ensure the advice is “mostly” followed

Normative: an emphasis on these standards as the right approach to ITT – especially regarding reading (systematic synthetic phonics) – also restatement of teaching as an all graduate profession. Universities have a place, BUT before ITT (subject knowledge)

Cultural-cognitive: academic-practitioner divide, place of university is in partnerships and as subject knowledge experts. 

NB: Normative and cultural-cognitive becoming blurred – old norms undermined 

Regulative: fear of inspections, clear criteria and standards. 

Normative: Universities used as “subject knowledge” experts rather than “education” experts – a push of government and their “advisers” as true experts on ITT

Cultural-cognitive: a joining of “what works” as a taken for granted presentation of teachers and school leaders as “profession” experts (teaching is a craft) – further legitimised normatively by a redefinition of the role of academia.

Teacher recruitment and retention strategy Linked to the Early Career Framework Regulative: accountability not to be reduced, OFSTED inspects, Government denotes standards

Normative: focus on CPD and life-long learning as central aspects of the teaching profession. Recognises some “leading” voices in education

Cultural-cognitive: accountability cannot be touched (taken for granted), a need to engage with CPD more. 

Regulative: fear of inspections, government standards and possible sanctions remain in place

Normative: CPD can help to develop the profession, attract new professionals, and keep teachers in schools – do CPD a normative prescription. Academia recognised to an extent through Sam Twiselton – who was also on the Carter review

Cultural-cognitive: accountability taken for granted as a necessity. 

ITT Core Content Framework Linked to the Early Career Framework and Carter Review Regulative: ITT standards still the core requirement for the QTS 

Normative: this document primarily operates here – denotes what good ITT is and how good ITT should be done

Cultural-cognitive: high emphasis on “evidence” of what works in teacher education. The document centres on perceived problems in ITT identified mostly in the Carter Review

NB: pillars align, limited direct attempts at “undermining” existing practices. 

Regulative: Inspections remain core mode of compliance.

Normative: a normative language centred on the one hand on research findings, and on the other on government definitions of stated targets and perceived issues.

Cultural-cognitive: The document claims the issues identified in the Carter review have now been addressed through the Core Content Framework and the Early Career Framework – so doing what they prescribe is “what works”

Table 7: Analytical summary: Process tracing predictions – deductive

Claim Result Indicator Key pieces of evidence
Control levers pushed an academic – practitioner split cognitive blueprint Holds Teacher standards, requirements of practical experience, rise of SCITTS Teaching quality, circular 3/84 – every ITT instructive or discussive document since – see annex tables
Control levers were pushed by a NPM cognitive blueprint Holds over time Control levers initially enabled steering at a distance, while over time enabled direct provider-central authority links and,progresively take the form of standardisation to enable establishing value for money NAO 2017, circular 3/84, circular 18/89 and 24/89 (standards set by DfE, not CATE/TTA), circulars 10/97 and 4/98,  DfE 2010 and DfE 2011
control levers will not change if they can push government cognitive blueprint(s) Holds, weak inference – needs more evidence accreditation and certification coupled with inspections and standards has remained the control levers Circular 3/84, DfE 2017, DfE 2018
Undermining of norms will a) require normative legitimacy to begin with Holds teachers staffed CATE, failure of national ITT curriculum due to lack of fit for academic purpose. Reception of ITT core content framework and early career framework Regulative: Role of inspections restated – fear of consequences. Sec of State as final authority. 

Teaching quality, circular 3/84, circular 4/98, DfE 2019b, DfE 2019c, interviews (A3; A7)

Undermining of norms will B) overtime mean initial normative legitimacy no longer required Holds, but weak counterfactual – hard to test TDA internalisation and end of teacher involvement. However, we cannot rule out this happening without preceding normative change.  Interviews (A3;A7;A12;A13) 
Elements of the cognitive blueprints will over time become taken for granted Holds Need for accountability no matter what, importance of established value for money, differentiation between academia and practitioners and their role in ITT DfE 2019a, NAO 2017, Carter review and gov. Response. Interviews (A1; A2;A3;A4;A6;A14;A17)
Mechanisms were entwined Mostly Holds Impossible to truly separate one from the other over time. However, normative and coercive mechanisms were separable due to the regulative nature of the environment. Cultural-cognitive pillar legitimised coercion and undermined the existing normative environment.  Annex tables: www.teacherscareers.eu 

Table 8 Events and government actions of relevance

Year Action Remarks Relevant for
1944 Education act Created an inclusive model of education. Low level of central control over teachers Education system
1963 Robbins report Divided Educational Research (ER). Four disciplines sociology, psychology, history, and philosophy central to education at this time Educational Research. – ITT
1976 PM James Callaghan’s speech at Ruskin College, Oxford A call for direct gov. intervention in Education, a novelty at the time. First time a sitting Prime Minister spoke about Education. Education became nationally significant for Labour and the working class.  Approach to governing. 
1982 Schools council abolished Schools council disbanded in 1982 by the Secretary of State for Education and Science, Sir Keith Joseph. Replaced it by two separate nominated bodies which would be responsible for the curriculum and examinations. Increasing the possibility of the DfE directly controlling examinations and the curriculum. Teacher’s work

Education governance

1984 Creation of CATE and QTS Created the current control levers in ITT ITT
1986 First Research Assessment Exercise Impacted how ER and ITT was conducted. Rise of the market and competition. Also increased quality in ER.  ER and ITT
1988 Education Act Established the current education system – lay ground work for SCITTs and academies (as grant maintained schools). Changed direction of English education policy from social democratic to neo-liberal New Public Management inspired ideals. Came about nine years after the Tory party first won power, and four years after ITT was restructured in circular 3/84. – extensive groundwork likely to have taken place prior. Created the Local Management System of Schools (LMS) which was useful for the later creation of MATS and local funding/direct funding to schools.

Kenneth Bakers move towards a national curriculum also influenced in part by a teacher’s strike over pay and conditions in 85-86 

Entire education system, education governance, teacher policy. 
1992 University reform Upgrade of colleges into universities. Academic drift. Final end of “Teacher Colleges”.  ITT and ER
1992 Creation of OFSTED A subtle move away from central control. Local and parental control (also present in the policies of the current Tory government). Created OFSTED Education inspections
1992 Education (Schools) Act 1992 Column 3 Value 10 schools
1995 Comment by HMCI Chris Woodhead 15 000 teachers were labelled as useless by Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector, Chris Woodhead. He was retained when Labour came to power.  Teachers
1997-8 National curriculum in ITT A standardised curriculum in ITT, ensuring that the same was taught across ITT providers. Ended in 2002.

This was pushed by the TTA who wanted a common set of standards in ITT.

ITT
1997 Change in government Labour takes over after 18 years of Tory rule. One of Blairs main focuses in opposition was “Education, Education, Education” – However they focused on adding new policies, not changing or revoking past Tory ones. 

NPM but of a different character. Neo-liberalism as a tool not an end in itself. On the other hand, others have called it neo-liberalism by stealth.

 All sectors of public policy
1998 Teachers: meeting the challenges of change – policy paper A policy paper addressing the need for a new professionalism in teaching. – Further oversight from the “outside world” education seen as too closed. A continuation of Callaghans speech and the policies of Thatcher. Education too important to be left to the educators.  Teachers, ITT
1999 Signing of Bologna declaration Move towards harmonized higher education in Europe. However, credits are still counted and talked about using the old English system, not ECTS for example. PGCE is a 4th year post graduate degree, not conformed to the 3+2+3 system of Bologna.  ITT
2000 Participated in PISA In line with governing by numbers ideology  Education system
2000 Performance pay To increase recruitment and retention. In line with governing by numbers ideology teachers
2000 Creation of academies Based on the old grant school idea, labour introduced the concept of academies which were put into place in 2002 Education system
2002 End of national curriculum in ITT Accordign to Furlong (2013) this marked a turning point in Labour strategy, when ITT alone was seen as not enough to target teacher autonomy (in line with governing by numbers ideology and a desire for central control, not autonomy)  ITT
2003 Framework agreement An agreement between government, the employers’  

association (the National Employers’ Organisation for School Teachers (NEOST)) and  

teachers’ unions (except for the strident National Union of Teachers). Was aimed at reducing teachers workload to improve student learning. Based upon a report from price waterhouse cooper

Teachers
2006 The Education (School Teacher Performance  

Management) (England) Regulations 2006

Required school governing bodies to  

‘establish a written policy (‘the performance management policy’) setting out how the  

performance of teachers at the school [was] to be managed and reviewed. Showed how Government faith in teachers remained minimal

Teachers and schools
2008 Financial crisis Lack of funds for social policies – eventually austerity All social policies
2008 Education framework Led up to the Master in teaching and learning. Was written by two voices ITT and further teacher education
2009 Master in teaching and learning Had its gov. funding cut in 2010 by Michael Gove. But some programs still exist through internal university funding. Current debates touch upon the need to extent the PGCE from 1 year to a full 2 year masters ITT and further teacher education
2010 Change in government Tory and Lib Dem coalition take over after 13 years of Labour rule. Tory dominance in education.

Coalition policies driven by ideology across social policy domains. 

Education system
2010 The importance of teaching white paper Major reversals of Labour policies. Emphasis upon School based training (later SCITT) and academies

Decentralisation and centralisation of policy both at the same time (DfE – Schools). Autonomy and Accountability of equal importance

ITT – Inspections – School system – recruitment
2010 Austerity Restricted funding. Pay cap on public employees (teachers) All public services
2010 Academies Act Act containing benefits for schools converting to academies. Tory policies quoted the autobiography of Tony Blair.  Education system
2010 -2015 Five year policy goals https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/2010-to-2015-government-policy-teaching-and-school-leadership/2010-to-2015-government-policy-teaching-and-school-leadership (accessed 02.12.2019) ITT – Inspections – School system – recruitment
2011 Policy on SCITTS Paper outlying the SCITT policy – increasing focus upon SCITTS.

SCITTS were created by Kenneth Baker in the late 80s however, and was encouraged by both Labour and the TTA according to Furlong (2013). UCET is also pro-SCITT. Issue is with the Univ-SCITT link and the PGCE. Partnerships an increasing issue. 

ITT – recruitmen
2015 Carter review A review of how to structure ITT – what constitutes good/excellent ITT. Work began in April 2014 (under Gove). Is seen as remarkably nuanced and somewhat neutral. But also written with multiple voices. ITT 
2016 Education Excellence Everywhere white paper Poorly written. Three different types of citations used. BERA president Ian Menter felt used and abused by the paper (https://www.timeshighereducation.com/blog/use-misuse-and-abuse-research-education-white-paper accessed 02.12.2019).

Continuation of decentralisation and centralisation of policy both at the same time (DfE – Schools). Autonomy and accountability

Education system and ITT
2016 Snap election “Hung” Parliament, Tory minority with DUP support. Backbenches (and whole of parliament) increasing in importance – see King 1976  All politics
2016 End of 2010-2015 policies Change of tact reported in interviews.

Justine Greening new Sec of State, Theresa May new PM. 

ITT – School system
2017 Scrapping pay cap The end to the teachers pay cap starting with the 2018/19 pay round. Mentioned in a letter from Elizabeth Truss MP, to Patricia Rice on the 21st of September 2017 Teachers and recruitment
2018 Recruitment Crisis Recruitment targets not met for fifth year in a row. However, still adequate numbers according to the government. In addition, the recruitment numbers themselves have in the past been criticised as inaccurate and randomly chosen. Thus if it is a true crisis, or a political crisis remains to be seen. Staffing issues are at present not reported.   ITT
2018 Retention crisis Teachers retire early, or change professions, at an increasing pace. This is according to unions due to workload and work conditions.   School system – CPD